"A feast of berries"

Berry-bearing plants can bring colour into our autumn and early winter gardens.
Sunday, 20 June 2021     

Berries of Nandina domestica

Autumn and early winter can bring a rich feast of berries to our gardens, along with flocks of birds to gorge themselves upon them. The flash of colourful plumage and the comical calls of many of the parrot species seen in Sydney gardens, along with the melodic presence of sleek currawongs, add a unique dimension to our landscape at this time of year. Like autumn-foliage trees, berried plants are best purchased locally and when in fruit to ensure a desirable specimen. Stems of berries provide excellent subjects for autumn floral arrangements.

Many berry-producing plants have the male and female flowers on the same plant, so are certain to bear fruit, but a few have these on separate plants so that at least one plant of each sex is required for berries to occur. Most prefer a sunny site in the garden - though there are a few exceptions - and when deciding where to plant them, it is wise to consider the surface below the plant, as paths and paving may become slippery and messy when covered with fallen berries. The self-seeding habit of many berried plants must also be contemplated, as this can be a negative aspect for those gardeners who are concerned about invasion of nearby bushland by exotic specimens such as Cotoneaster, with its glossy red baubles like doll's-house apples. Children should be discouraged from sampling any ornamental berries, as some can be poisonous.

Most autumn berries have colours which echo the red, orange and yellow hues of deciduous foliage, and many arrive quite early on in autumn, and so contribute a seasonal colour theme if grown against a background of autumn-colouring trees. Many last for months, even into winter in some cases, if the birds leave them alone. Yellow or orange toxic berries dangle from the branches of the semi-tropical sky flower bush Duranta erecta and its cultivars, which may be trained as a tree or standard or left as a shrub for use as a hedge or screen (ht 2-5 m). Photinia species and cultivars produce fruit after flowering if not pruned, and Photinia x fraseri is sometimes called Christmas berry in Northern Hemisphere gardens for its red berries in winter.

The coral berry (Ardisia crenata ht 1-1.8 m) is a small evergreen shrub from South-East Asia, which enjoys our Sydney climate and produces whorled layers of rich red berries amongst its lush tiers of leathery leaves. The berries last throughout winter, and unusually for a fruiting shrub, it enjoys a shaded position with rich soil. There are also cultivars with creamy-white berries. Also suitable for shade (as well as sun) and originating in China and Japan is sacred bamboo (Nandina domestica, ht 1.8 m), which will produce long-lasting red berries amidst its dainty, vaguely bamboo-shaped evergreen foliage (see photo at start of the blog). It needs both male and female plants for the berries to develop; however, it is possible to buy hermaphrodite cultivars! It is in no way related to the invasive true bamboos.

Other berries vary from the fiery colour palette, including those of Mahonia lomariifolia (ht 2-3 m), a stately evergreen shrub in the same family as Nandina and also growing well in shaded spots. It has spiny, leathery leaves, of a dark green hue. In late autumn and winter, it sends up long, upright flowering spires of tiny, yellow, clustered bells, which have a soft scent, followed by blue-black berries will follow. Very striking fruit form on the so-called beauty berry (Callicarpa species). Rather straggly deciduous shrubs in themselves, they produce small lilac flowers in summer, which transform to quaint brooches of glittering purple beads throughout autumn and winter, providing intriguing material for flower arrangements. Chinese Callicarpa bodinieri (to 3 m) produces the most abundant fruit. These shrubs should be pruned in spring to encourage new fruiting wood.

Several Australian rainforest trees produce attractive autumn berries. Larger orange berries smother the domed crown of the diamond-leaf pittosporum or Queensland laurel, an Australian rainforest tree now called Auranticarpa rhombifolia (previously Pittosporum rhombifolium). Growing to 24 m tall in its native habitat, it is more likely to be constrained to around 8-10 m in a garden setting, like many native rainforest trees. Luscious, edible pink-purple or white round fruit that can be made into jam cover the branches of the lilly pilly tree (Acmena smithii) in late summer and autumn. Whilst this can be grow tall in its native habitat, it is far more compact in an open garden setting (ht 6-9 m). Dwarf forms, such a 'Minipilly', grow to only 1-2 m. Also known as lilly pilly, compact Syzygium cultivars (ht 2-3 m) have edible white, pink or purple berries. A tree-sized version is Syzygium paniculatum (ht to 15 m), which bears large rose-purple fruit. The blueberry ash (Elaeocarpus reticulatus) has deep blue fruit on a tree 5-9 m high in gardens. It can be pruned to form a shrub. A much smaller native plant is the midgen berry (Austromyrtus dulcis), which will grow about 40 cm tall in sun or part shade and bears edible white berries covered with small blue dots.

Some perennials also form berries, most notably, members of the Ophiopogon and Liriope genera, if the faded flower stalks are not removed. Bright violet-blue berries form on Ophiopogon jaburan (ht 60 cm), after its pretty white flowers have faded, as may the ordinary form of mondo grass (Ophiopogon japonicus, ht 30 cm). Its dark-leaved cousin Ophiopogon planiscapus 'Nigrescens' (ht 25 cm) sports glossy black berries, as do all Liriope species and cultivars.

There are lots of possibilities for a feast of berries in Sydney gardens!

Blog first published 21 June 2009; updated 20 June 2021.

 Reader Comments

1/15  Alida - 4566 (Zone:11A - Sub-tropical) Monday, 22 June 2009

Another great article - thanks Deirdre. I have gorgeous bright blue berries on a clump of giant mondo Ophiopogon jaburan and bunches of red berries on the Photinia bushes that haven't been pruned.

Thanks for that, Alida. I have updated the blog to take account of these berries you mentioned! Deirdre.

2/15  Emily - 2119 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 22 June 2009

I have eaten blueberry ash berries, and am still alive! They are edible, but don't taste particularly nice.

Thanks for the feedback, Emily, I guess that answers the question!

3/15  Gillian - 2119 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Tuesday, 23 June 2009

I particularly enjoyed the article on what you are doing in your garden. There is so much to learn about when to prune what at one given time and having a reminder is excellent. It will help us all to get the most from our gardens knowing when to prune. I find this aspect of gardening difficult.

Thanks, Gillian. I agree, pruning is a tricky subject!

4/15  Sue - 2074 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Tuesday, 23 June 2009

A 'berry nice' read,thank you Deidre. Funnily enough I pruned my miscanthus today, as like you I have left it too late before. It already has lots of new growth. I also did the salvia, 'Phyllis Fancy' as she was needing to be moved and the new growth was already 50cm high. Hope it works!

Thanks, Sue. I am sure 'Phyllis' will survive her move and that one is fine to prune now as there is a lot of new growth and it is pretty tough. Deirdre

5/15  Jan - 2072 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Tuesday, 23 June 2009

Dear Deidre, Your words have become my 'gardening bible' so thank you very much.You have just said that you have left your plectranthus for pruning until late August. Unfortunately in my ignorance I trimmed mine about three weeks ago. Is it doomed to die or can I save it? Please help me. Jan.

Don't worry too much, Jan! I know a lot of gardeners who do cut theirs back now. The Plectranthus (especially P. ecklonii varieties) are probably the most robust of the ones that I mentioned, and if you are in a milder suburb or if they are grown in shade under trees, they will be fine. It is only if we get a very cold night like we had a couple of years ago when there was frost in many areas that the pruned-back plants might get affected. The framework of old growth seems to provide some protection for the plant in that case; and for plants grown underneath trees, the trees seem to give that same sort of buffer for them against the frost. In Beecroft where I am, we sometimes do get very cold nights in July so I err on the side of caution. I always take a few cuttings of my Plectranthus and other cold-sensitive plants in autumn just in case there are any fatalities! Part of my pruning plan is based on sheer laziness, too: I like to have one huge pruning session in August! I also prefer to have some bulk left in the garden over winter as otherwise it would all look a bit bare for quite some time because I have so many of these sorts of plants, whereas when I prune in August, the plants are ready to start growing pretty soon after that. Anyway, I am sure all will be well. Deirdre

6/15  Margaret - 2122 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Friday, 26 June 2009

great blog, as usual, C. G., especially as I dont have any berry plants in my garden. I especially liked what to do in the garden - it reminds me of what I should be doing, if the garden ever dries from all the recent rain.

7/15  Jan - 2072 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Friday, 03 July 2009

Deidre Thank you so much for your comforting advice on my plectranthus. Sorry I havent been back to you earlier but succumbed to a winter flu and not been on the net. Can I be so bold as to make a suggestion that you write a gardening book with all these wonderful "blogs" of yours. Cheers Jan

8/15  Kathryn - 2119 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Tuesday, 14 July 2009

Another great blog! Could you tell me if the Sacred Bamboo is suitable for growing in containers? Thank you!

Thanks, Kathryn - yes, I think it would be fine in a pot. Deirdre

9/15  Susan - 2430 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 21 June 2021

What a lovely post Deirdre, especially the parts about our native plant berries. Every winter I am delighted by the stunning display of golden berries on the bare branches of our avenue of Melia trees. Last year a flock of fig birds were also delighted - so delighted, that the berries were gone in a few weeks. I didn't mind! Oh I forgot about that one! It's really pretty, isn't it, with those berries. Deirdre

10/15  Jean - 4035 (Zone:11A - Sub-tropical) Monday, 21 June 2021

Thanks for this delightful post about berry trees and shrubs! I can boast about Ardisias which are my treasured plants tucked away in the shade with their Splash of red brightening the place. I love that they self propagate! And Sheenas yellow berries are a lovely sight in the summer! And the lilly pilly berries are as large as cheeries! I have to watch the little ones when they wander in my garden!! You have lots of attractive berries in your garden, Jean! Deirdre

11/15  Jean - 4035 (Zone:11A - Sub-tropical) Monday, 21 June 2021

Correction Cherries not Cheeries even though they bring cheer!

12/15  Maureen - 2118 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 21 June 2021

Hi Deirdre - at last I have the name of stricking undemanding, Callicarpa bodinieri !! Such a lovely arching plant with its gleaming purple berries. From Maureene & Keith some years ago and mislaid the tag . It's a nice shrub with those berries. Deirdre

13/15  Laurel - 4179 (Zone:11A - Sub-tropical) Monday, 21 June 2021

Love your blogs Deidre. I am pleased that you note Duranta's berries are toxic. Some years ago my dog started fitting and after an expensive vet bill I was told it was the Duranta berries they found in his stomach. I had assumed that they were harmless because they are sold commercially and with no toxicity information on the tag. So that was the end of my Duranta's, at least it wasn't a young child. On another note, my favourite autumn berries are the elderberry and the many birds they attract. Yes it is a worry that this sort of information isn't it. I don't know of the elderberry berries - will investigate. Deirdre

14/15  Christine - 2429 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 21 June 2021

Loved your articles. Agree re premature pruning of many species, esp Salvias. Cut them back too early and can promote new growth if weather warms a bit....then a later frost kills it off. I try to leave frost affected foliage on, as you suggest, it protects the under growth from further frost/cold damage. Doesn't look pretty but works. In frosty areas it is prudent not to cut back to soon, as you have explained. In my frost-free garden I am experimenting a bit but i don't cut back any of my very cold-sensitive plants like Pentas and coleus until late August to early September. Deirdre

15/15  Noeline - 2081 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 21 June 2021

i just noticed the bright metallic blue berries today on my Viburnum although very striking they are harmful if eaten so I am glad they are up and away from and passing children and pups. Yes many Viburnum do have interesting berries but can be toxic. Deirdre

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