"Cheerful geraniums"

Pelargonium types provide a bright splash of colour almost all year round in our Sydney gardens.
Sunday, 23 October 2011     

Potted zonal Pelargonium cultivars in Assisi, Umbria, Italy

One of the most commonly seen plants during our trip to Italy was the geranium (properly known as Pelargonium, Zonal Hybrids). They were in pots everywhere: on balconies, windowsills and lined up beside doorways. They seem to grow very well in the dry Mediterranean climate; however, they are generally grown as annuals through summer, as the winter there is generally too cold for them to survive. Though we do get some foliage disease problems with them here in Sydney, they do grow pretty well here on the whole, and this spring, they seem to have been flowering madly.

These geraniums are one of those plants by which I can chart my gardening evolution. As a beginning gardener, I grew many from stolen cuttings, in na´ve wonderment of these ease of creating a new plant from a stalk and the simple joy of growing a flower. As I moved into my English garden phase, I threw them all out as vulgar, stinky horrors that had no place in my refined borders - I would only grow proper species Geranium types. Sadly, few of these proved suitable for my Sydney garden and nowadays the zonal Pelargonium are back in my garden, their decorative, rounded, fleshy leaves and brilliantly coloured flowers happily at home with other warm-climate plants. For hot-coloured gardens, red and orange-red flowered cultivars are perfect in pots or forming a wide shrubby mound (up to 60 cm if unpruned) amongst taller plants or an informal row along the front of a low fence. Fancy-leafed types with gold or blackish leaves, or dark-banded foliage are particularly effective with bright coloured flowers. There are also pretty pastels of pinks or white that fit in with cooler colour themes. There is even a soft pale yellow cultivar, called 'Creamery'. There are single, semi-double and double flower forms, as well as rosebud and star-shaped types. There are literally hundreds of named cultivars, though I have rarely known the names of any of mine.

They are South African in origin, and flower almost all year round if trimmed back every so often through the year they will flower almost perpetually in our mild climate. Early to mid-spring is probably their absolute peak time, especially if they have been pruned by around two-thirds in early autumn to allow the development of a good plant structure. They should be tip pruned after the main pruning to develop a compact shape. These plants want sun and light, well-drained soil on the dry side, with good air circulation around them. I do, however, have a bright pink one called 'Shady Lady' that grows well in shade. In general, I have had better success growing them in the garden than in pots, as I found they got too leggy in containers. The miniature forms may be better suited to growing in a pot. If rust or other diseases strike in humid summers, I cut them back and they usually get over it. The 'Deacon' cultivars are said to be disease-resistant.

Ivy-leafed geraniums (Pelargonium, Ivy-leafed Hybrids) are probably the easiest Pelargonium to grow in Sydney as they are not susceptible to diseases. They have very attractive glossy leaves and are scrambling or trailing plants with similar flowers to the zonal types, in colours of reds, white, pinks, mauves and purple. They can stand moister soil than the zonal geraniums and are excellent used to spill over retaining walls or banks, as a groundcover, as a subject for hanging baskets or to climb on wire fences. They don't need to be cut back as hard as the zonal types, or else they can be cut back by one-third at a time. They also benefit from tip pruning to create a dense form. They can flower almost all year round in our climate. This year I potted some of different colours together in a container on a sort of plinth and they cascaded down nicely. I also recently saw an amazing sight of a huge specimen of a crimson ivy geranium intertwined with the lilac-flowered climber Petrea volubilis, that stopped me in my tracks.

I also love regal geraniums (Pelargonium, Regal Hybrids), which flower for a shorter period from mid spring to early summer. The flowers are large and sumptuous and usually have a combination of colours and distinct blotches. They grow a bit taller than the zonal types, with attractive pleated leaves. They need hard pruning after flowering to keep them compact.

The best time for taking cuttings of any of these Pelargonium is in early autumn, when the plants are pruned. I find that it is best to replace them after a few years, as they can get woody with age. Don't overwater them, especially in January and February when it is humid. I give them just a general fertiliser when I do the rest of the garden. Mulching around them with cane mulch is said to help reduce the occurrence of diseases on the leaves.

 Reader Comments

1/11  Therese - 2119 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 24 October 2011

I"ve just renewed my interest in Pelargoniums having purchased some pots as well as taking cuttings to grow.....your tips are timely!! Grazie....nonna Tessa!

Hope they all grow well for you! Deirdre

2/11  Lyn - 4570 (Zone:11B - Tropical) Monday, 24 October 2011

My garden on clay soil needed some sand. A load of sandy loam was full of nut grass, impossible to eradicate. After a year of trying, I began growing geraniums to shade it out. I"m addicted now;Mt Pelargonium, topped by an apricot Brugmansia for shade,is covered in white to pink and purple. Thanks

It sounds great! Deirdre

3/11  Margaret - 2153 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 24 October 2011

Everytime I returned from Europe I bought geranium for hanging baskets. However the plants become sick quickly. So I gave up. Since you mentioned that they grow better in the ground than in pots I will give them another go and plant them in the ground. Thanks

Hope it works out. I have found that some do better than others - usually ones that other people give me cuttings of prove to be the most robust. Deirdre

4/11  Robin - 2121 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 24 October 2011

Having just visited Central Coast gardens and seen spectacular pelargoniums I will strike cuttings in terracotta pots from now on. In full sun and spaced apart, I"m told they grow well in terracotta if kept pruned and replaced every two years or so from cuttings. Loved the blog. Thanks Deirdre

I think pruning and tip pinching are important for good pot specimens, Deirdre

5/11  Valerie - 4160 (Zone:11A - Sub-tropical) Monday, 24 October 2011

Thank you for the article on Geraniums they indeed give a wonderful display in the garden, I too have always been able to get cuttings from friends or from my garden club. I do remember when many years ago holidaying in Spain all the houses had a splash of Geraniums somewhere.

Thanks, Valerie. It is great that they grow so easily from cuttings! Deirdre

6/11  Maree - 2118 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 24 October 2011

Hi, I guess I am the exception, in that I find I am able to grow geraniums in pots, as opposed to in my clay soil, and I have had the same ones for years. The minitures grow well in pots but are very slow growers. The Ivy ones are the easiest and will grow in the ground with lots of pruning.Maree

That is interesting - mine always get very straggly in pots. Perhaps a bigger size may be better. Deirdre

7/11  Margaret - 2122 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Tuesday, 25 October 2011

love geraniums, even the gaudy ones! They grow easily for me, especially the ivy types. Saw fantastic zonal types last Sat. on the cottage garden ramble, garden owner feeds them with dynamic lifter and takes cuttings for new plants every two years.

Thanks, Margaret. I do like the ivy ones too. That ramble sounded very good and I"m sorry I missed it. Deirdre

8/11  Lyn - 4570 (Zone:11B - Tropical) Tuesday, 25 October 2011

Hi Dierdre, For great tips on growing geraniums from cuttings, try http://www.ozgeraniums.com.au Use very small thumb pots, try the week before a full moon, Lyn

Thanks, Lyn. Deirdre

9/11  Rae - 2119 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Sunday, 30 October 2011

My 9 year old has a geranium collection! he has asked all the neighbours for cuttings and has also trimmed some from neighbouring streets! They are very rewarding for him as he can see the benefits of his efforts.

That"s great, Rae! he sounds like a budding gardener! Deirdre

10/11  Margaret - 2122 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 23 October 2017

Still enjoy growing geraniums - they must be one of the easiest plants to grow and to propagate. The array of colours and forms is astounding. A friend from Queensland sent me some cuttings from her plants, including a beautiful pale pink and a cyclamen, which are doing well. This growing season, the geranium "Big Red", always generous with blooms, has excelled itself. I believe there is a "Big Pink", just as good as its cousin, but I have not grown this. Since I wrote this blog, the "Big" geraniums have come on the market and they are superb. I like both the red and deep pink ones.They seem to flower almost all year round. Deirdre

11/11  Helen - 7256 (Zone:10 - Mediteranean) Monday, 23 October 2017

Like you Diedre my gardening started with pelargoniums --from the wonder of being to propagate them so easily & progressed to disdain as they were so common.The way back came thru an interest in herbs & scented pelargoniums --especially love velvety leaved peppermint, lime & lemon- rose scented. Like Maree I grow them mostly in pots--my garden is generally too wet, tho I do have ivy leaved forms in the ground & peppermint under a redwood tree. Also like the variegated miniature, Mme Salleron. Since I wrote the blog, I have started to grow some in pots quite successfully. I also grow more ivy ones now, cascading over a wall. I love the scented-leaf ones too: they are very tough plants. Deirdre

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