"Late spring volunteers"

Many self-seeding annuals bloom now.
Sunday, 01 November 2015     

Self-seeded Centranthus ruber in the main street of Millthorpe, NSW

No, I'm not talking about those people who turn up late for their rostered time for the cake stall at the school's spring fete, but about some beautiful, often overlooked annuals which self-seed each year to flower in October and November, once an original packet of seeds has been sown. I have just returned home from seeing some gorgeous spring gardens (in Millthorpe and Bathurst, NSW), and have luxuriated in seeing roses of such robust health along with a wealth of cool-climate beauties that in general do not grow well in Sydney. Having talked about cool-climate plants last week, I decided this week to focus on those late spring self-seeding annuals, many of which I saw in some of the gardens I visited here and elsewhere this year, because these can actually grow very well in Sydney.

Their self-seeding ways means they pop up where we would never think of planting them, providing a softening and informal effect. They give extra colour to the late spring garden. They usually take up little ground space, shoehorning themselves effortlessly between other plants. Popping up in various places through the garden, they provide a cohesion to the place that is sometimes hard to achieve in any other way.

What I have also noticed about them is that on the whole they have rather unusual flower shapes, adding diversity to the look of the garden. A number of them seem to hail from the Mediterranean region, and most prefer sun and well-drained soil. They require no work from the gardener other than to pull up excess seedlings, and to shake the spent plants around as they are pulled up at the end of spring, to scatter the seeds. Most require to be sown initially directly into the garden: they dislike being transplanted. Heavily mulched gardens are not too conducive to self-seedlings; leave some patches only light covered with mulch to encourage next year's crop.

One of my favourites is Orlaya grandiflora, which has dainty, lacy white flowers like Queen Anne's lace on a smaller scale (ht 30-40 cm). It has pretty, ferny foliage and blooms over a long period. It is hard to find commercially - mine was obtained from a friend who found seeds many years ago in New Zealand. It has been passed on from gardener to gardener in our area. I can recommend it if you are ever offered seeds.

Love-in-a-mist (Nigella damascena ht 25-50 cm) is another ferny-leaved annual that flowers now. It has unusual whiskered blooms comprised of multiple layers of petals, usually blue but sometimes white or pink. It looks effective growing amongst roses or the Salvia that are just coming into flower now.

Annual poppies are another late spring joy and they can grow quite well in Sydney. In general, the species Papaver rhoeas and its cultivars are the most commonly seen (ht 25-40 cm), with their crepe-like, bowl-shaped flowers, usually marked with a black blotch. Colours can range from soft pastel pinks, purple and whites (especially in the exquisite 'Mother of Pearl' cultivar) to brilliant red. They look effective growing with other lavender, tall bearded Iris or shrubby daisies.

Annual foxgloves (eg Digitalis purpurea 'Foxy', ht to 1 m or more) are also self-seeders I've seen a lot of this spring, and I want to grow them in my garden once again next year. I love their bold, stately spires and they will tolerate partly shaded sites, so suit woodland areas with hellebores, Arthropodium and Solomon's seal. They do take up more space at ground level than the other self-seeders described here; they are also one of the few that can be transplanted successfully as seedlings. It's best to plant them out as seedlings in late summer to get them going in your garden; thereafter they should self-seed.

A very unusual annual is Cerinthe major 'Purpurascens' (ht 45-60 cm). This plant was in vogue some years ago, because if the amazing metallic blue-purple hue of its nodding, bell-like flowers and bracts. I did try it a few times but discarded it because it died at the end of spring - I thought it was meant to be a perennial and thus unsuited to our climate. In cooler climates, it may well be perennial but in Sydney, it generally behaves as a self-seeding annual, according to some of my gardening friends, which is fine by me; I plan to try it again after seeing some stunning specimens in the gardens at the weekend.

Several other plants which are perennial in cooler climates often behave as self-seeding annuals in my garden, dying out in the humid summer weather, but reappearing as seedlings in autumn or early spring, including the ethereal, spired Linaria purpurea in its pale pink, white and purple forms; the silvery-leaved Lychnis coronaria with cerise, white or white and pink flowers; and valerian (Centranthus ruber, shown at the start of the blog) with clustered heads of tiny flowers: I saw at least five different shades of this (white plus various shades of pink and red) in the gardens at the weekend.

Some people may regard all these plants as weeds. To me, they provide another dimension to the garden at this time of year and I would never want to be without some of them. Other possibilities for self-sown annuals in Sydney include Californian poppies, larkspur and cornflowers.

The annual Bathurst and Millthorpe open-garden festivals are wonderful events. Look out for them next year and enjoy a fabulous weekend away in the NSW countryside. Check out the My Open Garden website for details of other gardens to visit in the meantime!

 Reader Comments

1/8  Marilyn - 2250 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 02 November 2015

I love foxgloves and I had a fabulous show three years ago. Last year they were badly affected by spider mites as they came into flower, and this year by onion thrips, so despite looking great up to the point of flowering the leaves rapidly went brown and the plants died. Very disappointing. I"m not wanting to rely on pesticides to see flowers, so will have to forgo them. Anyone else had this problem? What a shame about your foxgloves, Marilyn. I have heard this is a bad year for thrip. I understand what you mean about pesticides; I don"t like using them either. I hope next year is a better season for them. Deirdre

2/8  Lynette - 2577 (Zone:8-9 - Cool Temperate to Alpine) Monday, 02 November 2015

I now live in the Southern Highlands after having lived on the North Shore of Sydney all my life until 13 years ago. I agree with Deidre on the wonderful effects created by self-seeders. But down here Cerinthe Major tends to really take over and unfortunately I have had to eliminate it from my garden as it buries other gems. But this year joy oh joy, for the first time I have had the magnificent geranium maderense flower so I will be eagerly looking for babies; more great self seeders. I just can"t imagine being overrun by Cerinthe! However, I have been overrun by Geranium maderense and have had to be ruthless with them, just leaving a couple! Amazing how our gardens vary so much even though we are not far apart really! Deirdre

3/8  Christine - 2429 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 02 November 2015

As a result of trying to reclaim a very overgrown garden we inherited six months ago when purchased, I have been delighted to see many papavers in a dusky mauve colour with a deeper centre emerge. Obviously disturbing and cultivating the soil has uncovered the buried seed. I love them so much that I have ordered more in other tones from Mistydowns Nursery. Am planting plenty of cosmos (cultivars ordered online from W.A.) slightly different to the normal range - planted in tougher areas. Your poppies sound lovely; good luck with the cosmos. Deirdre

4/8  Jennifer - 3104 (Zone:10 - Mediteranean) Monday, 02 November 2015

Year after my borage comes up in all different places in the potager. They are very easy to pull out, but once they are flowering with those beautiful blue flowers buzzing with bees I lose heart - and leave them for another week. Thus each year I have even more! Ah well - must just pull them out at the two leaf stage. I love borage too. It sure is vigorous, though! Deirdre

5/8  Steve - 2230 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 02 November 2015

I like seeing the yellow Coreopsis beside the highways and railways now, the verges would be so dull without them. Those coreopsis are a memory from my childhood, travelling by train from the Blue Mountains to Sydney. I love them! Deirdre

6/8  Brian - 2546 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Monday, 02 November 2015

I have just located seeds of Orlaya Grandiflora at Frogmore Gardens in case anyone is interested. I have ordered some and will give them a try. Thank you SO much, Brian! People often ask me where to get them. I looked at the Seed Store on the site and they have some other great ones too, such as Browallia americana, foxgloves, various coloured Nigella etc, that are often hard to get. Deirdre

7/8  Helen - 7256 (Zone:10 - Mediteranean) Tuesday, 03 November 2015

Enjoyed your post - I love the wild effect that self seeders bring. Main ones in my garden are columbine, cineraria, honesty and of course forget me nots. Its exciting to see the new colours each year. Some of course are borderline weeds ( well forget me nots are a weed - but I will never eliminate them & they do prevent worse weeds getting a hold). Thanks, Helen; I too love forget-me-nots with their haze of colour in spring though I am glad to see them go at the end of spring! I know I will never be without them! Deirdre

8/8  Trudi - 4223 (Zone:10 - Warm Temperate) Thursday, 05 November 2015

I love the self seeders you mentioned. In my garden mainly cosmos, different colours, A mini Zinnia in a subtle gold/rust colour and narrow leafed Zinnia angustifolia, they pop up where they find a niche, most of the time it is like they know exactly where they suit.The herbgarden flourishes with self seeders like coriander, dill. borage and others.Those are not just used in the kitchen, I love their looks, the blue of the borage flowers, yellow dill and the lace flowers of coriander.

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